Patulin Facts Sheet

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Patulin is a polyketide lactone, produced by certain fungal species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys growing on fruit, including apples, pears, grapes and other fruit.

Patulin found to be  carcinogenic in lab mamals.

Patulin has an Effect on carbohydrate metabolism . patulin Causes breaks in DNA, Inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase . Patulin has an Influence on intracellular ion flux and interaction with cellular membranes.

Patulin has Antitumor activity .

see also: European Mycotoxin Awareness Network : fsheet6.htm

Patulin can be isolated as colourless to white crystals from ethereal abstracts that have no optical activity. It melts at about 110 C and sublimes in high vacuum at 70-100 C. It is soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ethyl or amyl acetate and less soluble in diethyl ether and benzene. It undergoes all the reactions expected of a secondary alcohol, reduces warm Fehlings solution and decolorises potassium permanganate. It is stable in acid solutions but can be decomposed by boiling in 2N H2SO4 for 6 hours. It is susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis, reduced by SO2 and by fermentation

LD50 for the rat has been reported as 15 mg kg-1 body and 25 mg kg-1after sub-cutaneous injection

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alternate names: patulin

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 Selected abstracts about Patulin

1 Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider

Factors affecting patulin production by Penicillium expansum.

3 The effect of culture preservation techniques on patulin and citrinin production by Penicillium expansum
4 Effect of thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride and calcium-d-pantothenate on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate.  
5 The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin, and patulin affect interferon-gamma rather than interleukin-4 production in human blood cells.
6 The mycotoxin patulin alters the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium: mechanism of action of the toxin and protective effects of glutathione.
7 Co-occurrence of patulin and citrinin in Portuguese apples with rotten spots.  
8 The effect of modified atmospheres and packaging on patulin production in apples.
9 Fate of patulin in the presence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  
10 Hplc detection of patulin in apple juice with GC/MS confirmation of patulin identity This page was done by a student of Bioinformatics, Open University Jerusalem Israel, in a homage to Fermentek and to Dr Berend.
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